This article contains some common and useful abbreviations used in healthcare and pharmaceutical sector.
we use these during day to day practice and in profession
some of these abbreviations we find on our prescription and body test reports. others used in pharma and healthacre industry.
Doctors and other health care professionals commonly use a list of abbreviations, acronyms, and other medical terminology as a reference to rapidly search and accurately record information about, and give instructions to their patients.
These abbreviations, acronyms, and medical terminology are used for many conditions and for instructions on medication prescribed by your doctor. we try to give a short list of common abbreviations you may have seen on a doctor’s prescription, a drug strip and bottle, lab or other test results, or in your doctor’s notes.
- A.C.: Before meals. As in taking a medicine before meals.
- a/g Ratio: Albumin to globulin ratio.
- AADA: Abbreviated antibiotic drug application
- ACA: Affordable Care Act
- ACL: Anterior cruciate ligament. ACL injuries are one of the most common ligament injuries to the knee. The ACL can be sprained or completely torn from trauma and/or degeneration.
- ACO: Accountable Care Organization
- ADE: Adverse drug event
- ADME: Absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion
- Ad lib: At liberty. For example, a patient may be permitted to move out of bed freely and orders would, therefore, be for activities to be ad lib.
- ADH: Antidiuretic hormone
- ADHD: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
- ADR: Adverse drug reaction. If a patient is taking a prescription drug to treat high blood pressure disease
- AFR: Acute renal failure
- AHU: Air Handling Unit
- AIDS: Acquired immune deficiency syndrome
- AKA: Above the knee amputation.
- ANDA: Abbreviated new drug application
- Anuric: Not producing urine. A person who is anuric is often critical and may require dialysis.
- ANED: Alive no evidence of disease. The patient arrived in the ER alive with no evidence of disease.
- AP: Applicants Part (of EDMF)
- API: Active pharmaceutical ingredient
- APR: Annual product review (APQR – Annual product quality review)
- APTC: Advanced Premium Tax Credit
- AQL: Acceptable quality level
- AR: Analytical Reagent
- ARDS: Acute respiratory distress syndrome.
- ARF: Acute renal (kidney) failure
- ASCVD: Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. A form of heart disease.
- ASHRAE: American Society of heating, Refrgeration and Air Conditioning Engineers
- ASM: Active Substance Manufacturer
- ASMF: Active Substance Master File
- AST: Accelerated stability testing
- ASTM: American Society for Testing and Materials
- AV: Actuarial Value
- BA/BE: Bioavailability/bioequivalence
- BCS: Biopharmaceutical classification system
- BET: Bacterial Endotoxin Test
- BFS: Blow Fill Seal
- BI: Biological Indicator
- b.i.d.: Twice daily. As in taking a medicine twice daily.
- BMR: Batch Manufacturing/Processing Record
- BOD: Biological Oxygen Demand
- bld: Blood. Blood was visible on the patient’s scalp.
- Bandemia: Slang for elevated level of band forms of white blood cells.
- Bibasilar: At the bases of both lungs. For example, someone with a pneumonia in both lungs might have abnormal bibasilar breath sounds.
- BKA: Below the knee amputation.
- BMP: Basic metabolic panel. Electrolytes (potassium, sodium, carbon dioxide, and chloride) and creatinine and glucose.
- BOM: Bill of Materials
- BOPP: Biaxially Oriented Polypropylene
- BP: Blood pressure. Blood pressure is recorded as part of the physical examination. It is one of the “vital signs.”
- BP: British Pharmacopoeia
- BPD: Borderline personality disorder. A personality disorder.
- BPR: Batch Packaging Record
- BRMS: Biologics Regulatory Management System
- BSO: Bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. A BSO is the removal of both of the ovaries and adjacent Fallopian tubes and often is performed as part of a total abdominal hysterectomy.
- BSE: Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (mad cow disease)
- CAPA: Corrective and preventive action
- C&S: Culture and sensitivity, performed to detect infection.
- C/O: Complaint of. The patient’s expressed concern.
- cap: Capsule.
- Ca: Cancer; carcinoma. For example, a patient who undergoing treatment for cancer should assure that they are eating and drinking enough fluids daily, both during and after treatment.
- CABG. Coronary artery bypass graft. A surgery involving the heart.
- CAC: Certified Application Counselor
- CAP: Consumer Assistance Program
- CBC: Complete blood count.
- CBE: Changes being effected
- CBER: Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (FDA)
- CC: Chief complaint. The patient’s main concern.
CCIIO: Center for Consumer Information and Insurance Oversight
- CCIT: Container closure integrity test
CDC: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
- CDE: Complete dental (oral) evaluation.
- CDER: Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (FDA)
- CDSCO: Central drug standard control organization (India)
- cc: Cubic centimeters.
- CEP: Certification of suitability of European Pharmacopoeia monographs
- CFR: Code of Federal Regulations
- CFU: Colony Forming Unit
- cGMP: Current Good Manufacturing Practices
CHC: Community Health Center
CHIP: Children’s Health Insurance Program
- Chem panel: Chemistry panel. A comprehensive screening blood test that indicates the status of the liver, kidneys, and electrolytes.
- CIP: Clean in place
- CMC: Chemistry, manufacturing and controls
- CMS: Continuous monitoring system
CMS: Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services
- COA: Certificate of analysis
COB: Coordination of Benefits
COBRA: Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act
CO-OP: Consumer Operated and Oriented Plan
- COPP: Certificate of Pharmaceutical Products
- COS: Certificate of suitability
- CPP: Critical Process Parameter
- CQA: Critical Quality Attribute
CSR: Cost-Sharing Reduction
- CPAP: Continuous positive airway pressure. A treatment for sleep apnea.
- COPD: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
- CT: Chemotherapy. A type of treatment therapy for cancer.
- CTD: Common technical document
- CVA: Cerebrovascular accident (Stroke).
- D/C or DC: Discontinue or discharge. For example, a doctor will D/C a drug. Alternatively, the doctor might DC a patient from the hospital.
- DCIS: Ductal Carcinoma In Situ. A type of breast cancer. The patient is receiving treatment for Ductal Carcinoma In Situ.
- DDX: Differential diagnosis. A variety diagnostic possibilities are being considered to diagnose the type of cancer present in the patient.
- DJD: Degenerative joint disease. Another term for osteoarthritis.
- DM: Diabetes mellitus.
- DME: Durable Medical Equipment
- DMF: Drug master file
- DNC, D&C, or D and C: Dilation and curettage. Widening the cervix and scrapping with a curette for the purpose of removing tissue lining the inner surface of the womb (uterus).
- DNR: Do not resuscitate. This is a specific order not to revive a patient artificially if they succumb to illness. If a patient is given a DNR order, they are not resuscitated if they are near death and no code blue is called.
- DOE: Dyspnea on exertion. Shortness of breath with activity.
- DOP: Dioctyl Phthalate
- DQ: Design Qualification
- DTR: Deep tendon reflexes. These are reflexes that the doctor tests by banging on the tendons with a rubber hammer.
- DVT: Deep venous thrombosis (blood clot in large vein).
- ETOH: Alcohol. ETOH intake history is often recorded as part of a patient history.
- ECT: Electro conclusive therapy. A procedure used to control seizures (convulsions).
- ECP: Essential Community Provider
- EDMF: European drug master file
- EDQM: European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines
- EH&S: Environmental health and safety
- EHB: Essential Health Benefit
- EIR: establishment inspection report (FDA)
- EMEA: European Medicines Agency (formerly European Medicines Evaluation Agency)
EMR: Electronic Medical Record
EOB: Explanation of Benefits
- EP: European Pharmacopoeia
EPO: Exclusive Provider Organization
- EPS: Expanded polystyrene
EPSDT: Early Periodic Screening, Diagnostic & Treatment Services
ERISA: Employee Retirement Income Security Act
ESI: Employer-sponsored Insurance
- ETP: Effluent Treatment Plant
- EU: Endotoxin unit
- EU: European Union
- FAT: Factory Acceptance Testing
- FBD: Fluid-bed dryer
- FDA: Food and Drug Administration, United States
- FDC: Fixed Dose Combination
- FEFO: First expiry first out
FFM/FFE: Federally Facilitated Market place/ Federally Facilitated Exchange
- FG: Finished Goods
- FIFO: First in first out
- FOI: Freedom of information
- FMEA: Failure modes and effect analysis
FPL: Federal Poverty Level
FQHC: Federally Qualified Health Center
FSA: Flexible Spending Account
- FX: Fracture.
- gm: gram, a unit of weight. cream is available in both 30 and 60 gram tubes.
- GAMP: Good automated manufacturing practice
- GC: Gas Chromatography
- GCLP: Good clinical laboratory practice
- GCP: Good clinical practice
- GDP: Good distribution practice
- GEP: Good engineering practice
- GGP: good guidance practice
- GIT: Gastrointestinal Tract
- GLP: Good laboratory practice
- GMO: Genetically modified organism
- GMP: Good manufacturing practice
- GPT: Growth Promotion Test
- GRAS/E: Generally recognized as safe and effective
- GRP: Good review practice
- gtt: Drops
- HACCP: Hazard analysis critical control point
- HDPE: High Density Polyethylene
- HEPA: High efficiency particulate air (filter)
- HPLC: High performance liquid chromatography
- H&H: Hemoglobin and hematocrit. When the H & H is low, anemia is present. The H&H can be elevated in persons who have lung disease from long term smoking or from disease, such as polycythemia rubra vera.
- H&P: History and physical examination.
- h.s.: At bedtime. As in taking a medicine at bedtime.
- H/O or h/o: History of. A past event that occurred.
- HA: Headache.
HCR: Health Care Reform
HCBS: Home and Community-Based Services
- HDHP: High Deductible Health Plan
HHS: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
HIPAA: Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act
HIM/HIX: Health Insurance Marketplace/ Health Insurance Exchange
HMO: Health Maintenance Organization
HRP: High Risk Pool
HRSA: Health Resources and Services Administration
HSA: Health Savings Account
- HSA: Health Sciences Authority
- HRT: Hormone replacement
- HTN: Hypertension.
- HVAC: Heating, ventilating, and air conditioning
- I&D: Incision and drainage.
- IBD: Inflammatory bowel disease. A name for two disorders of the gastrointestinal (BI) tract, Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis
- ICAH: International Conference on Harmonisation
- ICD: Implantable cardioverter defibrillator
- ICU: Intensive care unit. The patient was moved to the intensive care unit.
- IH: In house
- IM: Intramuscular.
- IMP: Impression. This is the summary conclusion of the patient’s condition by the healthcare professional at that particular date and time.
- IND: Investigational new drug
- INDA: Investigational new drug application
- IP: Indian Pharmacopeia
- IPA: Isopropyl Alcohol
- IPA: In-Person Assisters Program
- IPS: In process control
- IQ: Installation qualification
- IR: Immediate release
- ISO: International Organization for Standardization
- ISPE: International Society for Pharmaceutical Engineering
- ITU: Intensive therapy unit
- in vitro: In the laboratory
- in vivo: In the body
- IPF: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. A type of lung disease.
- IU: International units
- IV: Intravenous
- JP: Japanese Pharmacopoeia
- K: Potassium. An essential electrolyte frequently monitored regularly in intensive care.
- KCL: Potassium chloride
- KOS: Knowledge organization system
- LAF: Laminar air flow
- LAL: Limulus Amoebocyte Lysate
- LBP: Low back pain. LBP is one of most common medical complaints.
- LCIS: Lobular Carcinoma In Situ. A type of cancer of the breast. The patient is receiving treatment for Lobular Carcinoma In Situ.
- LD: Lethal dose
- LD50: Lethal dose where 50% of the animal population die
- LDPE: Low Density Polyethylene
- LIMS: Laboratory Information Management System
- LIR: Laboratory Investigation Report
- LLQ: Left lower quadrant. Diverticulitis pain is often in the LLQ of the abdomen.
- LOD: Loss on drying
- LOD: Limit of detection
- LOQ: Limit of quantification
- LR: Laboratory Reagent
- LTC: Long Term Care
- LUQ: Left upper quadrant. The spleen is located in the LUQ of the abdomen.
- LVPs: Large Volume Parentals
- Lytes: Electrolytes (potassium, sodium, carbon dioxide, and chloride
- MAGI: Modified Adjusted Gross Income
- MA: Marketing Authorisation
- MA: Medicare Advantage
- MAA: Marketing Authorisation Application
- MAC: Maximum Allowable Carryover
- MCL: Medial collateral ligament.
- MCC: Medicines control council (South Africa)
- MDD: Maximum daily dose
- MFR: Master Formula Record
- MEDSAFE: Medicines and medicinal devices safety authority (New Zealand)
- mg: Milligrams.
- MHRA: Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (UK)
- M/H: Medical history
- ml: Milliliters.
- MLR: Medical Loss Ratio
- MOA: Method Of Analysis
- MSDS: Material Safety Data Sheets
- MVP: Mitral valve prolapse
- N/V: Nausea or vomiting.
- Na: Sodium. An essential electrolyte frequently monitored regularly in intensive care.
- NCE: New chemical entity
- NCP: Nursing care plan
- NDA: New Drug Application
- NF: National Formulary
- NIR: Near Infra Red Spectroscopy
- NON: Notice of non-compliance (Canada)
- npo: Nothing by mouth. For example, if a patient was about to undergo a surgical operation requiring general anesthesia, they may be required to avoid food or beverage prior to the procedure.
- NSR: Normal sinus rhythm of the heart
- O&P: Ova and parasites. Stool O & P is tested in the laboratory to detect parasitic infection in persons with chronic diarrhea.
- O.D.: Right eye
- ODI: Orally Disintegrating Tablet
- O.S.: Left eye
- O.U.: Both eyes
- OOS: Out of specification
- OOT: Out of trend
- OQ: Operation Qualification
- OSD: Oral Solid Dosage
- OSHA: Occupational Safety And Health Administration
- OTC: Over-the-counter
- ORIF: Open reduction and internal fixation, such as with the orthopedic repair of a hip fracture.
- P: Pulse. Pulse is recorded as part of the physical examination. It is one of the “vital signs.”
- PAC: Post-approval changes
- PAO: Poly alpha olefin
- PAT: Process Analytical technology
- PBM: Pharmacy Benefit Manager
- p¯: After meals. As in take two tablets after meals.
- p.o.: By mouth. From the Latin terminology per os.
- p.r.n.: As needed. So that it is not always done, but done only when the situation calls for it (or example, taking a pain medication only when having pain and not without pain).
- PCL: Posterior cruciate ligament.
- PD: Progressive disease. Patients at risk of developing progressive disease of the kidneys include those with proteinuria or hematuria.
- PET: Preservative efficacy test
- PIC/S: Pharmaceutical Inspection Co-operation Scheme
- PERRLA: Pupils equal, round, and reactive to light and accommodation.
PFT: Pulmonary function test. A test to evaluate the how well the lungs are functioning.
- PERRLA: Pupils equal, round, and reactive to light and accommodation.
- PLC: Programmable Logic Control
- Plt: Platelets, one of the blood forming elements along with the white and red blood cells.
- PMI: Point of maximum impulse of the heart when felt during examination, as in beats against the chest.
- PMS: Premenstrual syndrome
- PQ: Performance Qualification
- PT: Physical therapy
- PTH: Parathyroid hormone
- PTSD: Post-traumatic stress syndrome
- PVC: Polyvinyl Chloride
- PVDC: Polyvinylidene Chloride
- PUD: Peptic ulcer disease. A type of ulcer of the stomach.
- PW: Purified Water
- q.d.: Each day. As in taking a medicine daily.
- q.i.d.: Four times daily. As in taking a medicine four times daily.
- q2h: Every 2 hours. As in taking a medicine every 2 hours.
- q3h: Every 3 hours. As in taking a medicine every 3 hours.
- qAM: Each morning. As in taking a medicine each morning.
- qhs: At each bedtime. As in taking a medicine each bedtime.
- qod: Every other day. As in taking a medicine every other day.
- qPM: Each evening. As in taking a medicine each evening.
- QA : Quality Assurance
- QC: Quality Control
- QbD: Quality by design
- QM: Quality Manual
- QSD: Quality System Dossier
- QSM : Quality System Management
- QMS: Quality Management System
- RA: Rheumatoid arthritis.type of joint disease.
- RDS: Respiratory distress syndrome
- R/O: Rule out. Doctors frequently will rule out various possible diagnoses when figuring out the correct diagnosis.
- REB: Rebound, as in rebound tenderness of the abdomen when pushed in and then released.
- RH: Relative humidity
- RLAF: Reverse laminar air flow
- RLD: Reference listed drug
- RLQ: Right lower quadrant. The appendix is located in the RLQ of the abdomen.
- RM: Raw material
- RO: Reverse Osmosis
- ROS: Review of systems. An overall review concerns relating to the organ systems, such as the respiratory, cardiovascular, and neurological systems.
- ROPP: Roll On Pilfer Proof
- RS: Related Substance
- RUQ: Right upper quadrant. The liver is located in the RUQ of the abdomen.
- s/p: Status post. For example, a person who had a knee operation would be s/p a knee operation.
- SAD: Season affective disorder. A type of depression that occurs during the winter months when there is little light.
- SAL: Sterility Assurance Level
- SAT: Site Acceptance Testing
SBC: Summary of Benefits and Coverage
SBM/SBE: State Based Marketplace/State Based Exchange
- SDN: Screening Deficiency Notice (Canada)
SEP: Special Enrollment Period
SHOP: Small Business Health Options Program
- SIP: Sterilization in place/Steam in place
- SLS: Sodium Lauryl Sulphate
- SMF: Site master file
SNF: Skilled Nursing Facility
- SOB: Shortness of breath.
- SOP: Standard operating procedure
- SPE: Society for Pharmaceutical Engineering
SPM/SPE: State Partnership Marketplace/ State Partnership Exchange
SPP: Specialty Pharmacy Provider
SSDI: Social Security Disability Income
- SSI: Supplemental Security Income
- SQ: Subcutaneous. This is a typical notation when noting or ordering an injection (shot) given into the fatty tissue under the skin, such as with insulin for diabetes mellitus.
- SUPAC: Scale-up and post approval changes
- SVP: Small Volume Parental
- T: Temperature. Temperature is recorded as part of the physical examination. It is one of the “vital signs.”
- T&A: Tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy
- t.i.d.: Three times daily. As in taking a medicine three times daily.
- tab: Tablet
- TAH: Total abdominal hysterectomy
- TAH: Total abdominal hysterectomy. A type of surgery to remove a woman’s uterus, Fallopian tubes, and ovaries.
- TC: Thermo couple
- TDS: Total Dissolved Solids
- TGA: Therapeutics goods administration (Australia)
- THR: Total hip replacement
- TKR: Total knee replacement
- TMJ: Tempo mandibular joint
- TOC: Total organic carbon
- TSE: Transmissible spongiform encephalopathy
- TPA: Third Party Administrator
- UA or u/a: Urinalysis. A Urinalysis is a typical part of a comprehensive physical examination.
- U or u**: Unit. Mistaken as the number 0 or 4, causing a 10-fold overdose or greater (for example, 4U seen as “40” or 4u seen as “44”); mistaken as “cc” so the dose is given in volume instead of units (for example, 4u seen as 4cc).
- UCR: Usual, Customary and Reasonable Charges
- ULN: Upper limits of normal
- USFDA: United states foods and drugs administration
- USP: United States Pharmacopoeia
- USP-NF: United States Pharmacopoeia-National Formulary
- URI: Upper respiratory infection, such as sinusitis or the common cold
- URS: User Requirement Specification
- ut dict: As directed. As in taking a medicine according to the instructions that the health care professional gave in the office or in the past
- UTI: Urinary tract infection
- VAI: Voluntary action indicated
- VMP: Validation Master Plan
- VSS: Vital signs are stable. This notation means that from the standpoint of the temperature, blood pressure, and pulse, the patient is doing well
- WFI: Water for injection
- WHO: World Health Organisation
- WL: Warning letter
- Wt: Weight. Body weight is often recorded as part of the physical examinatio
- XRT: Radiotherapy (external). A type of treatment that uses radiation.
- Medical Representative (Front Line Manager)
- Area Sales Manager (ASM)
- Regional Sales Manager (RSM)
- Zonal Sales Manager (ZSM)
- deputy general sales manager(DGM)
- Country Manager (international location)
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- Work And Responsibility Of Marketing Manager
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- Frequently asked questions for Interview related to Pharmacology
- Questions Which Is Asked In Interview
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This article give some detail about the abbreviations and other short forms which is used in pharma and healthacre industry.we hope this article helps you in your daily life.