DEVELOPMENT OF BABY AND STAGES OF PREGNANCY-This article give information about the baby development in after every 4 week. Which precautions required at that time and what type of problems comes during stages of pregnancy.
A typical pregnancy lasts 40 weeks from the first day of your last menstrual period (LMP) to the birth of the baby. It is divided into three stages, called trimesters:
- first trimester
- second trimester
- third trimester.
DURING THE PERIOD OF PREGNANCY CONSULT WITH THE GYNECOLOGIST AND DIETITIAN (0R DIETICIAN) FOR THE GOOD GROWTH OF BABY.
- During pregnancy required nutrients such as iron, folic acid, and other important vitamins and minerals.
- must eat from a variety of food groups, including fruits and vegetables, breads and grains, protein sources and dairy products.
- Fruits and vegetables contain many important nutrients for pregnancy especially, Vitamin C and Folic Acid. Pregnant women need at least 70 mg of Vitamin C daily, which is contained in fruits such as oranges, grapefruits and honeydew, and vegetables such as broccoli, tomatoes.
- In order to prevent neural tube defects, 0.4 mg of folic acid per day is recommended. A good source of folic acid can be found in dark green leafy vegetables (other sources of folic acid include legumes, such as black or lima beans, black-eyed peas, and veal). You should have at least 2-4 servings of fruit and 4 or more servings of vegetables daily.
- main source of energy for pregnancy comes from the essential carbohydrates found in breads and grains. Whole grain and enriched products provide important nutrients such as iron, B Vitamins, fiber and some protein, even.
- Meat, poultry, fish, eggs, and beans contain the protein, B vitamins and iron needed in pregnancy. Your developing baby needs plenty of protein, especially in the second and third trimesters. Iron helps to carry oxygen to your growing baby, and also carries oxygen to your muscles to help avoid symptoms such as fatigue, weakness, irritability, and depression
- At least 1000 mg of calcium is needed daily to support a pregnancy. Calcium is essential for building strong teeth and bones, normal blood clotting, and muscle and nerve function. Since developing baby requires a considerable amount of calcium, body will take calcium from your bones, if you do not consume enough through your diet (which can lead to future problems, such as osteoporosis).Good sources of calcium include milk, cheese, yogurt, cream soups, and puddings. Some calcium is also found in green vegetables, seafood, beans and dried peas. You should consume at least 4 servings of dairy productsdaily.
Conception to about the 12th week of pregnancy marks the first trimester.
The second trimester is weeks 13 to 27.
The third trimester starts about 28 weeks and lasts until birth.
A missed period may be the first sign for pregnancy. Other changes will also occur during pregnancy.
Physical and Emotional Changes in a Woman During First Trimester
Hormonal changes will affect the almost every organ in the body. Some signs like:
- Extreme fatigue
- Tender, swollen breasts. Nipples may protrude.
- Nausea with or without throwing up (morning sickness)
- Cravings or aversion to certain foods
- Mood swings
- Constipation, frequent urination
- Headache, Heartburn
- Weight gain or loss
FIRST TRIMESTER: during this Some of the changes women observe in daily routine like may need to go to bed earlier or eat more frequent or smaller meals. Some women feels a lot of discomfort, and others may not feel any at all. Each pregnancy is different and even a same women feel completely different with each subsequent pregnancy.
At 4 weeks, your baby is developing:
- The nervous system (brain and spinal cord) has started to form.
- The heart begins to form.
- Arm and leg buds begin to develop.
- Your baby is now an embryo and 1⁄25 of an inch long.
At 8 weeks, the embryo begins to develop into a fetus:
- All major organs have begun to form.
- The baby’s heart starts to beat.
- The arms and legs grow longer.
- Fingers and toes have begun to form.
- Sex organs begin to form.
- The face begins to develop features.
- The umbilical cord is clearly visible.
- At the end of 8 weeks, your baby is a fetus, and is nearly 1 inch long, weighing less than ⅛ of an ounce.
The end of the first trimester is at about week 12, after 12 week development:
- The nerves and muscles begin to work together. Your baby can make a fist.
- The external sex organs show if your baby is a boy or girl.
- Eyelids close to protect the developing eyes. They will not open again until week 28.
- Head growth has slowed, and your baby is about 3 inches long.
SECOND TRIMESTER : second trimester is easier than the first. Nausea (morning sickness) and fatigue may lessen or go away completely. More changes occur in body. That baby bump will start to show as your abdomen expands with the growing baby. By the end of the second trimester you will even be able to feel your baby move.
Physical and Emotional Changes in a Woman During Second Trimester
- Darkening of the skin around your nipples.
- Numb or tingling hands (carpal tunnel syndrome)
- Back, abdomen, groin, or thigh aches and pains
- Stretch marks comes on your abdomen, breasts, thighs, or buttocks
- A line on the skin running from belly button to pubic hairline (linea nigra)
- Patches of darker skin, usually over the cheeks, forehead, nose, or upper lip. This is sometimes called the mask of pregnancy (melasma, or Chloasma facies).
- Itching on the abdomen, palms, and soles of the feet. (Call your doctor if you have nausea, loss of appetite, vomiting, yellowing of skin, or fatigue combined with itching. These can be signs of a liver problem.)
- Swelling of the ankles, fingers, and face. (If you notice any sudden or extreme swelling or if you gain a lot of weight quickly, call your doctor immediately. This could be a sign of a serious condition called preeclampsia.)
As your body changes in the second trimester, baby continues to develop:
- The musculoskeletal system continues to form.
- Skin begins to form and is nearly translucent.
- Meconium develops in your baby’s intestinal tract. This will be your baby’s first bowel movement.
- Your baby begins sucking motions with the mouth (sucking reflex).
- Your baby is about 4 to 5 inches long and weighs almost 3 ounces.
At about 20 weeks in the second trimester, your baby continues to develop:
- Your baby is more active. You might feel movement or kicking.
- Your baby is covered by fine, feathery hair called lanugo and a waxy protective coating called vernix.
- Eyebrows, eyelashes, fingernails, and toenails have formed. Your baby can even scratch itself.
- Your baby can hear and swallow.
- Now halfway through your pregnancy, your baby is about 10 inches long and weighs about 10 ounces.
By 24 weeks, even more changes occur for your growing baby:
- The baby’s bone marrow begins to make blood cells.
- Taste buds form on your baby’s tongue.
- Footprints and fingerprints have formed.
- Hair begins to grow on your baby’s head.
- The lungs are formed, but do not yet work.
- Your baby has a regular sleep cycle.
- If your baby is a boy, his testicles begin to descend into the scrotum. If your baby is a girl, her uterus and ovaries are in place, and a lifetime supply of eggs has formed in the ovaries.
- Your baby stores fat and weighs about 1½ pounds, and is 12 inches long.
THIRD TRIMESTER : is the final stage of pregnancy. Discomforts that started in the second trimester will likely continue, along with some new ones. As the baby grows and puts more pressure on your internal organs, you may find you have difficulty breathing and have to urinate more frequently. This is normal and once you give birth these problems should go away.
Physical and Emotional Changes in a Woman During Third Trimester
- Swelling of the ankles, fingers, and face. (If you notice any sudden or extreme swelling or if you gain a lot of weight really quickly, call your doctor right away. This could be a sign of a serious condition called preeclampsia.)
- Tender breasts, which may leak a watery pre-milk called colostrum
- Your belly button may protrude
- The baby “dropping,” or moving lower in your abdomen
- Contractions, which can be a sign of real or false labor
- Other symptoms you may notice in the third trimester include shortness of breath, heartburn, and difficulty sleeping
At 28 weeks in the third trimester, your baby’s development continues:
- baby can survive outside uterus if lungs capable of breathing. 10-20% survival if born at this time
- baby is gaining about 1100 gms weighs about 2lb. 5oz. and is about 14 inches long.
At 32 weeks in the third trimester, your baby’s development continues:
- Your baby’s bones are soft but fully formed.
- Movements and kicking increase.
- The eyes can open and close.
- Lungs are not fully formed, but practice “breathing” movements occur.
- Your baby’s body begins to store vital minerals, such as iron and calcium.
- Lanugo (fine hair) begins to fall off.
- Your baby is gaining about ½ pound a week, weighs about 4 to 4½ pounds, and is about 15 to 17 inches long.
At 36 weeks, as your due date approaches, your baby continues development:
- The protective waxy coating (vernix) thickens.
- Body fat increases.
- Your baby is getting bigger and has less space to move around. Movements are less forceful, but you will still feel them.
- Your baby is about 16 to 19 inches long and weighs about 6 to 6½ pounds.
Finally, from 37 to 40 weeks the last stages of your baby’s development occur:
- By the end of 37 weeks, your baby is considered full term.
- Your baby’s organs are capable of functioning on their own.
- As you near your due date, your baby may turn into a head-down position for birth.
- Average birth weight is between 6 pounds, 2 ounces to 9 pounds, 2 ounces and average length is 19 to 21 inches long. Most full-term babies fall within these ranges, but healthy babies come in many different weights and sizes.
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